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|<center><span style="font-size:350%; line-height: 0.4em; vertical-align:top;"><span style="color:#008566">Welcome to '''ENVIRO'''</span> <span style="color:#762a87">'''Wiki'''</span></span></center>
 
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| style="width:60%;" |<center><span style="font-size:180%; color:#008566; line-height: 0.4em; vertical-align:top;"> Extensive Peer ReviewReadily Accessible.  Written By Experts</span></center>
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| style="width:60%;" |<center><span style="font-size:175%; line-height: 0.2em; vertical-align:top;"><big><span style="color:#008566">Welcome to '''ENVIRO'''</span> <span style="color:#762a87">'''Wiki'''</span></big></span><br /><br /><br /><span style="font-size:150%; color:#008566; line-height: 0.2em; vertical-align:top;"> Peer Reviewed.  Accessible.  Written By Experts</span></center>
| style="width:45%;" |<center><span style="font-size:110%;"> ''Developed and brought to you by '' <br>[[File:MainLogo-serdp-estcp.png|link=https://www.serdp-estcp.org |frameless|center|350px]]</span></center>
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| style="width:45%;" |<center><span style="font-size:110%; vertical-align:top;"> ''Developed and brought to you by '' <br>[[File:MainLogo-serdp-estcp.png|link=https://www.serdp-estcp.org |frameless|center|350px]]</span>''<span style="font-size:140%; vertical-align:top;">Your Environmental Information Gateway</span>''
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| <span style="line-height: 0.4em;"> Enviro Wiki aims to be the '''''go-to website''''' for environmental information. US environmental programs such as the ''Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program'' (SERDP) and ''Environmental Security Technology Certification Program'' (ESTCP) fund cutting-edge environmental research projects. Here, articles written by invited experts (see [[:Category:Contributors|Contributors]]) and edited by leaders in this field (see [[:Category:Contributors|Editors]]) aim to introduce and summarize current knowledge for environmental project professionals on an array of topics, with cross-linked references to reports and technical literature. </span>
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|<span style="line-height: 0.3em;"> The goal of the ENVIRO.wiki is to make scientific and engineering research results more accessible to the target audience, facilitating the permitting, design and implementation of environmental projects. Articles are written and edited by invited experts (see [[Contributors]]) to summarize current knowledge for environmental professionals on an array of topics, with cross-linked references to reports and technical literature. </span>
|<center><span style="font-size:120%">''Your Environmental Information Gateway ''</span></center>  
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|<center><span style="font-size:130%"><br/>[[#Table of Contents|See Table of Contents]]</span>
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<!--        TODAY'S FEATURED ARTICLE        -->
 
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<h2 id="mp-tfa-h2" style="margin:0.5em; background:#cef2e0; font-family:inherit; font-size:120%; font-weight:bold; border:1px solid #a3bfb1; color:#000; padding:0.2em 0.4em;">Featured article / Biodegradation - Hydrocarbons</h2>
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<h2 id="mp-tfa-h2" style="margin:0.5em; background:#cef2e0; font-family:inherit; font-size:120%; font-weight:bold; border:1px solid #a3bfb1; color:#000; padding:0.2em 0.4em;">Featured article / Natural Attenuation in Source Zone and Groundwater Plume - Bemidji Crude Oil Spill </h2>
<div id="mp-tfa" style="padding:0.0em 0.5em;">[[File:Edwards Article 1-figure 1.PNG|200 px|left|]]<dailyfeaturedpage> </dailyfeaturedpage></br>
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<div id="mp-tfa" style="padding:0.0em 0.5em;">[[File:NASZ_featured_1.jpg|350 px|left|]]<dailyfeaturedpage> </dailyfeaturedpage><br>
[[Biodegradation - Hydrocarbons|(Full article...)]]</div>
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[[Natural Attenuation in Source Zone and Groundwater Plume - Bemidji Crude Oil Spill|(Full article...)]] </div>
  
 
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[[File:WH Picture1.PNG|thumb|center|x400px|link=Dispersion and Diffusion|Molecular diffusion slowly transports solutes into clay-rich, lower permeability zones<br/><br/><br/><br/>]]
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[[File:WH Picture1.JPG|thumb|center|x350px|link=Dispersion and Diffusion|Molecular diffusion slowly transports solutes into clay-rich, lower permeability zones]]
 
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[[File:WH Picture2.JPG|thumb|center|x350px|link=Subgrade Biogeochemical Reactor (SBGR)|Typical subgrade biogeochemical reactor (SBGR) layout. The SBGR is an in situ remediation technology for treatment of contaminated source areas and groundwater plume hot spots<br/>]]
[[File:WH Picture2.PNG|thumb|center|x400px|link=Subgrade Biogeochemical Reactor (SBGR)|Typical subgrade biogeochemical reactor (SBGR) layout. The SBGR is an in situ remediation technology for treatment of contaminated source areas and groundwater plume hot spots<br/><br/><br/>]]
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[[File:WH Picture3.JPG|thumb|center|x350px|link=Direct Push Logging|An Hydraulic Profiling Tool (HPT) log with electrical conductivity (EC) on left, injection pressure in middle, and flow rate on the right]]
 
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[[File:WH Picture4.JPG|thumb|center|x350px|link=PH Buffering in Aquifers|Diagram of mineral surface exchanging hydrogen ions with varying pH. The surface of most aquifer minerals carries an electrical charge that varies with pH]]
[[File:WH Picture3.PNG|thumb|center|x400px|link=Direct Push Logging|An Hydraulic Profiling Tool (HPT) log with electrical conductivity (EC) on left, injection pressure in middle, and flow rate on the right<br/><br/><br/>]]
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[[File:WH Picture5.JPG|thumb|center|x350px|link=Biodegradation - Hydrocarbons|Comparison of the longitudinal redox zonation concept (A) and the plume fringe concept (B). Both concepts describe the spatial distribution of electron acceptors and respiration processes in a hydrocarbon contaminant plume]]
 
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[[File:WH Picture6.JPG|thumb|center|x350px|link=Direct Push Logging|Schematic of an Hydraulic Profiling Tool (HPT) probe. HPT were developed to better understand formation permeability and the distribution of permeable and low permeability zones in unconsolidated formations]]
[[File:WH Picture4.PNG|thumb|center|x400px|link=PH Buffering in Aquifers|Diagram of mineral surface exchanging hydrogen ions with varying pH. The surface of most aquifer minerals carries an electrical charge that varies with pH<br/><br/><br/>]]
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[[File:WH Picture7.JPG|thumb|center|x350px|link=Chemical Oxidation Design Considerations(In Situ - ISCO)|In situ chemical oxidation using (a) direct-push injection probes or (b) well-to-well flushing to delivery oxidants (shown in blue) into a target treatment zone of groundwater contaminated by dense nonaqueous phase liquid compounds (shown in red)]]
 
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[[File:WH Picture8.JPG|thumb|center|x350px|link=Geophysical Methods - Case_Studies|High-resolution 3D cross-borehole electrical imaging of contaminated fractured rock at the former Naval Air Warfare Center in New Jersey. Cross-borehole resistivity tomography imaging is a geophysical technique that can be used for site characterization and monitoring by observing variations in the electrical properties of subsurface materials]]
[[File:WH Picture5.PNG|thumb|center|x400px|link=Biodegradation - Hydrocarbons|Comparison of the longitudinal redox zonation concept (A) and the plume fringe concept (B). Both concepts describe the spatial distribution of electron acceptors and respiration processes in a hydrocarbon contaminant plume<br/><br/>]]
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[[File:WH Picture9.JPG|thumb|center|x350px|link=Stable_Isotope_Probing_(SIP)|Stable isotope probing (SIP) in use: Loading, deployment and recovery of Bio-Trap® passive sampler with 13C-labeled benzene. Stable isotope probing (SIP) is used to conclusively determine whether in situ biodegradation of a contaminant is occurring]]
 
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[[File:WH Picture10.JPG|thumb|center|x350px|link=1,2,3-Trichloropropane|Summary of anticipated, primary reaction pathways for degradation of 1,2,3-Trichloropropane (TCP). TCP is a man-made chemical that was used in the past primarily as a solvent and extractive agent, a paint and varnish remover, and as a cleaning and degreasing agent]]
[[File:WH Picture6.PNG|thumb|center|x400px|link=Direct Push Logging|Schematic of an Hydraulic Profiling Tool (HPT) probe. HPT were developed to better understand formation permeability and the distribution of permeable and low permeability zones in unconsolidated formations<br/><br/>]]
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[[File:WH Picture11.JPG|thumb|center|x350px|link=Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) of Fuels|Distribution of BTEX plume lengths from 604 hydrocarbon sites. Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) is one of the most commonly used remediation approaches for groundwater contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) and certain fuel additives such as fuel oxygenates or lead scavengers]]
 
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[[File:WH Picture12.JPG|thumb|center|x350px|link=Groundwater Sampling - No-Purge/Passive|No-purge and passive sampling methods eliminate the pre-purging step for groundwater sample collection and represent alternatives to conventional sampling methods that rely on low-flow purging of a well prior to collection. The Snap SamplerTM is an example of a passive grab sampler]]
[[File:WH Picture7.PNG|thumb|center|x400px|link=Chemical Oxidation Design Considerations(In Situ - ISCO)|In situ chemical oxidation using (a) direct-push injection probes or (b) well-to-well flushing to delivery oxidants (shown in blue) into a target treatment zone of groundwater contaminated by dense nonaqueous phase liquid compounds (shown in red)<br/><br/>]]
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[[File:WH Picture13.JPG|thumb|center|x350px|link=Natural Source Zone Depletion (NSZD)|Conceptualization of Vapor Transport-related Natural Source Zone Depletion (NSZD) processes at a Petroleum Release Site]]
 
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[[File:WH Picture14.JPG|thumb|center|x350px|link=Soil Vapor Extraction (SVE)|Conceptual diagram of basic Soil Vapor Extraction (SVE) system for vadose zone remediation. (SVE) is a common and typically effective physical treatment process for remediation of volatile contaminants in vadose zone (unsaturated) soils]]
[[File:WH Picture8.PNG|thumb|center|x400px|link=Geophysical Methods - Case_Studies|High-resolution 3D cross-borehole electrical imaging of contaminated fractured rock at the former Naval Air Warfare Center in New Jersey. Cross-borehole resistivity tomography imaging is a geophysical technique that can be used for site characterization and monitoring by observing variations in the electrical properties of subsurface materials]]
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[[File:WH Picture15.JPG|thumb|center|x350px|link=Emulsified Vegetable Oil (EVO) for Anaerobic Bioremediation|Emulsified Vegetable Oil (EVO) mixed in field during early pilot test. EVO is commonly added as a slowly fermentable substrate to stimulate the in situ anaerobic bioremediation of chlorinated solvents, explosives, perchlorate, chromate, and other contaminants]]
 
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[[File:WH Picture16.JPG|thumb|center|x350px|link=Vapor_Intrusion_(VI)|Key elements of vapor intrusion pathways]]
[[File:WH Picture9.PNG|thumb|center|x400px|link=Stable_Isotope_Probing_(SIP)|Stable isotope probing (SIP) in use: Loading, deployment and recovery of Bio-Trap® passive sampler with 13C-labeled benzene. Stable isotope probing (SIP) is used to conclusively determine whether in situ biodegradation of a contaminant is occurring<br/><br/>]]
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[[File:WH Picture17.JPG|thumb|center|x350px|link=Sorption_of_Organic_Contaminants|Batch reactor experiments to generate points on a sorption isotherm]]
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[[File:WH Picture18.JPG|thumb|center|x350px|link=Metagenomics|Results for metagenomic analysis of a groundwater sample obtained from a site impacted with petroleum hydrocarbons]]
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[[File:WH Picture19.JPG|thumb|center|x350px|link=Perchlorate|Perchlorate releases and drinking water detections]]
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[[File:WH Picture20.JPG|thumb|center|x350px|link=Mass_Flux_and_Mass_Discharge|Data input screen for ESTCP Mass Flux Toolkit]]
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[[File:WH Picture21.JPG|thumb|center|x350px|link=Bioremediation_-_Anaerobic_Design_Considerations|Amendment addition for biobarrier]]
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[[File:WH Picture22.JPG|thumb|center|x350px|link=Thermal_Remediation_-_Desorption|Thermal Remediation - Desorption schematic]]
  
[[File:WH Picture10.PNG|thumb|center|x400px|link=1,2,3-Trichloropropane|Summary of anticipated, primary reaction pathways for degradation of 1,2,3-Trichloropropane (TCP). TCP is a man-made chemical that was used in the past primarily as a solvent and extractive agent, a paint and varnish remover, and as a cleaning and degreasing agent<br/><br/>]]
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</slideshow>
 
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</div>
[[File:WH Picture11.PNG|thumb|center|x400px|link=Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) of Fuels|Distribution of BTEX plume lengths from 604 hydrocarbon sites. Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) is one of the most commonly used remediation approaches for groundwater contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) and certain fuel additives such as fuel oxygenates or lead scavengers]]
 
 
 
[[File:WH Picture12.PNG|thumb|center|x400px|link=Groundwater Sampling - No-Purge/Passive|No-purge and passive sampling methods eliminate the pre-purging step for groundwater sample collection and represent alternatives to conventional sampling methods that rely on low-flow purging of a well prior to collection. The Snap SamplerTM is an example of a passive grab sampler]]
 
 
 
[[File:WH Picture13.PNG|thumb|center|x400px|link=Natural Source Zone Depletion (NSZD)|Conceptualization of Vapor Transport-related Natural Source Zone Depletion (NSZD) processes at a Petroleum Release Site<br/><br/><br/>]]
 
 
 
[[File:WH Picture14.PNG|thumb|center|x400px|link=Soil Vapor Extraction (SVE)|Conceptual diagram of basic Soil Vapor Extraction (SVE) system for vadose zone remediation. (SVE) is a common and typically effective physical treatment process for remediation of volatile contaminants in vadose zone (unsaturated) soils<br/><br/>]]
 
 
 
[[File:WH Picture15.PNG|thumb|center|x400px|link=Emulsified Vegetable Oil (EVO) for Anaerobic Bioremediation|Emulsified Vegetable Oil (EVO) mixed in field during early pilot test. EVO is commonly added as a slowly fermentable substrate to stimulate the in situ anaerobic bioremediation of chlorinated solvents, explosives, perchlorate, chromate, and other contaminants<br/><br/>]]
 
</slideshow></div>
 
 
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{| id="mp-left" style="width:100%; vertical-align:top; background:#f9f9f9;"
| style="padding:2px;" |<h2 id="mp-tfa-h2_2" style="margin:3px; background:#cef2e0; font-family:inherit; font-size:120%; font-weight:bold; border:1px solid #a3bfb1; text-align:center; color:#000; padding:0.2em 0.4em;">Table of Contents <span style="font-size:85%; font-weight:bold;"></span></h2>
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| style="padding:2px;" |<h2 id="mp-tfa-h2_2" style="margin:3px; background:#cef2e0; font-family:inherit; font-size:120%; font-weight:bold; border:1px solid #a3bfb1; text-align:center; color:#000; padding:0.2em 0.4em;"><span id="#Table of Contents"></span>Table of Contents <span style="font-size:85%; font-weight:bold;"></span></h2>
  
 
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*[[Metals and Metalloids - Mobility in Groundwater | Mobility of Metals and Metalloids]]
 
*[[Metals and Metalloids - Mobility in Groundwater | Mobility of Metals and Metalloids]]
 
*[[pH Buffering in Aquifers]]
 
*[[pH Buffering in Aquifers]]
 +
*[[Sorption of Organic Contaminants]]
 
*[[Vapor Intrusion (VI)]]
 
*[[Vapor Intrusion (VI)]]
 +
**[[Vapor Intrusion - Separation Distances from Petroleum Sources]]
 
<u>'''[[Characterization, Assessment & Monitoring]]'''</u>
 
<u>'''[[Characterization, Assessment & Monitoring]]'''</u>
 +
*[[Characterization Methods – Hydraulic Conductivity]]
 
*[[Compound Specific Isotope Analysis (CSIA)|Compound Specific Isotope Analysis (CSIA)]]
 
*[[Compound Specific Isotope Analysis (CSIA)|Compound Specific Isotope Analysis (CSIA)]]
 
*[[Direct Push (DP) Technology]]
 
*[[Direct Push (DP) Technology]]
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<u>'''[[Soil & Groundwater Contaminants]]'''</u>
 
<u>'''[[Soil & Groundwater Contaminants]]'''</u>
 +
*[[1,4-Dioxane]]
 
*[[Chlorinated Solvents]]
 
*[[Chlorinated Solvents]]
 
*[[Metal and Metalloid Contaminants|Metals and Metalloids]]
 
*[[Metal and Metalloid Contaminants|Metals and Metalloids]]
 +
*[[N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA)]]
 
*[[Perchlorate|Perchlorate]]
 
*[[Perchlorate|Perchlorate]]
 
*[[Perfluoroalkyl and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS)|PFAS]]
 
*[[Perfluoroalkyl and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS)|PFAS]]
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*[[1,2,3-Trichloropropane|Trichloropropane (TCP)]]
 
*[[1,2,3-Trichloropropane|Trichloropropane (TCP)]]
 
<u>'''[[Munitions Constituents]]'''</u>
 
<u>'''[[Munitions Constituents]]'''</u>
 +
*[[Munitions Constituents - Alkaline Degradation| Alkaline Degradation]]
 +
*[[Munitions Constituents - Composting| Composting]]
 
*[[Munitions Constituents - Deposition | Deposition]]
 
*[[Munitions Constituents - Deposition | Deposition]]
 
*[[Munitions Constituents - Dissolution | Dissolution]]
 
*[[Munitions Constituents - Dissolution | Dissolution]]
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*[[Chemical Reduction (In Situ - ISCR) | In Situ Chemical Reduction (ISCR)]]
 
*[[Chemical Reduction (In Situ - ISCR) | In Situ Chemical Reduction (ISCR)]]
 
**[[Zerovalent Iron (ZVI) (Chemical Reduction - ISCR) | Zero-Valent Iron (ZVI)]]
 
**[[Zerovalent Iron (ZVI) (Chemical Reduction - ISCR) | Zero-Valent Iron (ZVI)]]
 +
**[[Zerovalent Iron Permeable Reactive Barriers]]
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*[[In Situ Groundwater Treatment with Activated Carbon]]
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*[[Injection Techniques for Liquid Amendments]]
 
*[[Injection Techniques - Viscosity Modification]]
 
*[[Injection Techniques - Viscosity Modification]]
 
*[[Landfarming]]
 
*[[Landfarming]]
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**[[Thermal Remediation - Smoldering | Smoldering]]
 
**[[Thermal Remediation - Smoldering | Smoldering]]
 
**[[Thermal Remediation - Steam | Steam]]
 
**[[Thermal Remediation - Steam | Steam]]
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Latest revision as of 16:31, 3 August 2019

Welcome to ENVIRO Wiki


Peer Reviewed. Accessible. Written By Experts
Developed and brought to you by
MainLogo-serdp-estcp.png
Your Environmental Information Gateway
The goal of the ENVIRO.wiki is to make scientific and engineering research results more accessible to the target audience, facilitating the permitting, design and implementation of environmental projects. Articles are written and edited by invited experts (see Contributors) to summarize current knowledge for environmental professionals on an array of topics, with cross-linked references to reports and technical literature.

See Table of Contents

Table of Contents

Attenuation & Transport Processes

Characterization, Assessment & Monitoring


Soil & Groundwater Contaminants

Munitions Constituents

Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA)

Regulatory Issues and Site Management

Remediation Technologies